In a sophisticated cyber-espionage operation, government entities in Ukraine and Poland faced targeted attacks between December 15th and 25th, 2023. The primary culprits, identified as the Russia-linked APT28 group, deployed a combination of previously undocumented malware, including OCEANMAP, MASEPIE, and STEELHOOK, to harvest sensitive information. This report provides an in-depth analysis of the attack vectors, malware types, and implications of these cyber threats.


  • OCEANMAP: Developed in C#, this backdoor executes commands via cmd.exe. It gains persistence by creating a ‘VMSearch.url’ file in the Windows Startup folder and uses the IMAP protocol for discreet command control, storing commands as email drafts.
  • MASEPIE: A Python-based malware, MASEPIE is a downloader that establishes communication with its control server over an encrypted TCP channel. It’s designed for file downloading/uploading and command execution.
  • STEELHOOK: This PowerShell script steals data from Chrome/Edge browsers. It can harvest sensitive information like passwords and browsing history, transmitting this data to a server in a Base64-encoded format.

The Attack: Phishing Campaigns and Email Exploits

The attack was initiated through deceptive emails urging recipients to click on a link, supposedly to view an important document. However, these links redirected to malicious web resources that abused JavaScript and the “search-ms:” URI protocol. This misuse led to the downloading of a Windows shortcut file (LNK), which, when opened, activated the MASEPIE malware through PowerShell commands.

Key Features of the Attack

  • JavaScript and the “search-ms:” Exploit: The attackers utilized JavaScript and the application protocol “search” (“ms-search”) to stealthily download malicious files.
  • Use of Shortcut Files: The phishing campaign deployed shortcut files to trigger the malware infection chain, a tactic demonstrating a high level of sophistication.
  • Rapid Deployment: Post initial compromise, tools like IMPACKET and SMBEXEC were used for network reconnaissance and lateral movement, often within an hour.

The Actors Behind the Scenes: APT28’s Involvement

APT28, also known as Fancy Bear or Strontium, a Russian state-sponsored threat actor, was identified as the orchestrator of this campaign. The group is notorious for targeting government entities, businesses, and NATO organizations.

APT28’s Modus Operandi

  • Phishing Campaigns: APT28 frequently uses phishing emails as a primary attack vector.
  • Exploiting Zero-day Vulnerabilities: The group is known for exploiting critical security flaws in widely used software, as evidenced by their recent exploitation of a vulnerability in Microsoft Outlook (CVE-2023-23397).

Implications and Mitigation Strategies

The recent event highlights how important it is for us to be more watchful about cybersecurity. The government and companies must step up their game. They should run frequent security checks, teach their staff how to spot scams, and quickly fix any weak spots in their software.

Global Cybersecurity Implications

The latest efforts by APT28 highlight how cyber threats keep changing. Groups all around the globe, especially in high-risk areas, need to understand that having strong cybersecurity is critical.

Enhancing Security Measures

  • Keep Your Software Updated: It’s really important to update your software and systems regularly so you can protect against the latest security bugs.
  • Cutting-Edge Threat Detection: Using modern detection systems that can spot and deal with dangers quickly is a smart move.
  • Teach Your Team: You’ve gotta educate your staff often on how to spot fake emails and other tricky scams that trick people.

Cybersecurity Collaboration and Intelligence Sharing

We need to work together to battle cyber threats – like the ones APT28 brings to the table. Countries and groups must exchange smarts on cybersecurity and top-notch protective strategies to beef up our shared safety nets.

Role of International Cybersecurity Bodies

  • Information Sharing: Platforms like US-CERT facilitate the sharing of critical cybersecurity information and best practices across borders.
  • Joint Cybersecurity Exercises: International cybersecurity drills and exercises can help in preparing and coordinating responses to large-scale cyber incidents.
  • Joint Cybersecurity Exercises: International cybersecurity drills and exercises can help in preparing and coordinating responses to large-scale cyber incidents.

Concluding Remarks

CERT-UA’s disclosures show that countries continue to deal with the risks of cyberwarfare. Groups need to keep up with new cyber threats and strengthen their defense systems. To learn more about cybersecurity steps and ways to defend yourself, go to the U.S. Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT) site.

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